روش‌های شناسایی اخبار جعلی: مطالعه مروری سیستماتیک

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری علوم ارتباطات اجتماعی، واحد بین‌الملل قشم، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، قشم، ایران

2 استادیار، گروه علوم ارتباطات، واحد تهران مرکزی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران

3 عضو هیأت علمی پژوهشگاه مطالعات آموزش و پرورش، سازمان پژوهش و برنامه ریزی آموزشی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

مقدمه: اخبار جعلی با توجه به دسترسی افراد به شبکه‌های اجتماعی و پلتفرم‌هایی که از قابلیت نظارت مستقیم برخوردار نیستند، روز به روز در حال گسترش است. در نتیجه دانستن شیوه‌های تشخیص یک خبر جعلی می‌تواند گامی مؤثر را در کاهش این گونه تأثیرگذاری‌ها داشته باشد.
روش پژوهش: دراین مطالعه مرور سیستماتیک، مقاله حاصل از پژوهش‌های انجام شده با موضوع شناسایی اخبار جعلی در جهان در دوره‌ی زمانی 2015 تا 2020 در مجلات معتبر علمی و پژوهشی داخلی و خارجی منتشر شده و در بانک‌های اطلاعاتی داخلی و بین‌المللی جمع‌آوری شد. در نهایت با اعمال معیار‌های ورود و خروج 43 مقاله مورد بررسی قرار گرفت.
یافته‌ها: با استفاده از مطالعات انجام شده مقالات در دو دسته کلی طبقه‌بندی شد: 1- روش شناسایی انسانی، 2- روش شناسایی خودکار یا ماشینی. شاخص‌های ارائه شده در مورد موضوع و پیشرفت‌های حاصل شده در این زمینه، باز نیز حاکی از ضعف بسیاری در شناخت اخبار جعلی دارد. از یک سو مدل‌های ماشینی که از پایگاه داده استفاده می‌کنند، نمی‌توان مدلی را ارائه داد که در فضای واقعی به درستی عمل نماید و از سوی دیگر استفاده از روش‌های انسانی بسیار زمان‌بر است.
نتیجه‌گیری: به نظر می‌رسد هنوز ضعف در تشخیص وجود دارد و در بسیاری از موارد مواجه با فضای واقعی خوب عمل نشده است، با این حال در سال‌های اخیر شبکه اجتماعی توئیتر بسیار بهتر از دیگر شبکه‌ها عمل کرده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


 
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